CHAPTER 9

or CHAPTER 109: THE LAST FEW BILLION YEARS

(300 MILLION – 3 BILLION YEARS AGO)

To measure a billion years, we’d need an hourglass 20,000 feet tall — the height of a major mountain. Mountains and large land forms first took shape in the last few billion years. Click here for image attributions. 1

I.  Introduction

II.  Oxygen And Eukaryotic Cells

III.  Sexual Reproduction

IV.  The Sexual Evolution

V.  From Amoebas To Amniotes

VI. Consciousness, Communication, Competition, Cooperation

VII.  The Rest Of The World

VIII.  Summary

IX.  Image Gallery:  Human Ancestors

X.  Chapter 9 Margin Notes (Blog Posts)

 

  1. Hourglass image from https://www.uokpl.rs/rsmax/hTxxJhR/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/20/20).  Mountain image public domain, https://creazilla.com/nodes/63914-mountain-clipart.  Cloud image by Fathromi Ramdlon, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/cloud-white-no-background-paint-2837231/ (both accessed, saved, and archived 11/14/2020).  Scarf image by Noto Color Emoji, Apache 2.0 License, Scarf emoji clipart. Free download transparent .PNG | Creazilla (accessed, saved, and archived 11/21/20).
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